3D printing is a technology that combines mechanical engineering technology, computer software technology, 3D model technology, data processing technology, laser technology and other disciplines. 3D printing technology has been widely used in aerospace, military and weapons, automobiles and race cars, electronics, biomedicine, dentistry, jewelry, games, consumer products due to its advantages of low cost, high performance, production freedom, high environmental protection environment and high quality. manufacturing precision and many other areas. Today we will learn about polymer materials for 3D printing.
1. Principle of 3D printing
3D printing, also known as "rapid prototyping" (RP), is a rapid prototyping technology that includes SLA (light curing), LOM (layering), SLS (selective laser sintering) and FDM deposition) in four ways. Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) technology is a kind of 3D printing technology. In it, materials are melted into liquid materials in heating cavity and squeezed out of them. After cooling, they are re-solidified and stacked on printing platform. for high-viscosity organic materials. Materials, food materials (chocolate, powdered sugar, cream), are widely used because of their wide range and low cost.
Fig. 1-1. Principle and materials of 3D printing
At present, 3D printing resin materials are changing every day, mainly polylactic acid (PLA), polybutylene succinate (PBS), polycaprolactone (PCL), acrylonitrile butadiene styrene plastics (ABS), polyamide (PA) etc., let's briefly look at a few materials.
2. Material modified with polymer for 3D printing - PLA
PLA is one of most promising biodegradable materials that can replace petroleum-based polymers. It has excellent mechanical properties, physical properties, compatibility, air permeability, transparency, excellent tensile strength and extensibility, easy to break when heated. during processing, and its crystallinity, toughness and heat resistance are relatively poor.
3D printing has become a trend, making it possible to make PLA environmentally friendly and environmentally friendly car interiors and frames. In car interiors, it can not only replace fireproof plastics such as polypropylene and ABS, but also ensure health of passengers, lower vehicle. driving and environmental stresses in production of vehicles.
3. 3D printing of polymer-modified material - PBS
PBS has low price and excellent mechanical properties. Compared with PLA of same price, its advantages are lower processing temperature and resistance to decomposition when heated. PBS is superior to PLA in terms of medical proliferation and osteogenesis, making it more widely used in scaffold applications for bone tissue engineering.
4. Resin Modified Material for 3D Printing - PCL
PCL is a biodegradable material with a crystallinity of approximately 45%. The glass transition temperature of PCL is -60°C. The appearance of PCL is milky white. The melting point is about 63°C and decomposition temperature is about 250°C. The tensile strength, bending strength, and elongation at break of 3D printed PCL are better than conventional processes. V. 3D printing of polymer-modified material - polyamide
PA has high strength, good flexibility, high heat distortion and processing temperature, and low shrinkage rate. Its 3D printing products have better strength and high toughness than ABS. Due to thermal stability, machinability and mechanical properties of PA, PA is best material for SLS parts.
Fig. 5-1. 3D printed nylon sample (source: Sculpteo)
3D printing technology is a century-old technological innovation and a revolutionary breakthrough in manufacturing industry of human society. It saves a lot of time and resources for production of items needed by human society. Many fields, such as home appliances, have made varying degrees of progress, and technicians can continue to pay attention.
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